Saturday, May 23, 2020
Mark Zuckerberg, Steve Jobs, Bill Gates, Jerry Yang, Walt Disney and so on. These were all the names often heard by us and often been a subject or topic discussed by everyone no matter in school or in the work place as a motivation to each other. They are a few examples of globally successful entrepreneurs. Their products are well known and useful. For example, Mark Zuckerberg created Facebook, Steve Jobs created Apple products, Bill Gates created Microsoft and so on. Their products were used widely by all of us around the world. The things that we are concerned about is the characteristics in them that make them globally succeeded entrepreneurs and so well known. So, comparing the characteristics of two globally succeeded entrepreneursÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦From dropping out of College, attending creative classes, becoming a video game designer and starting the Apple products, this shows that Steve Jobs had never give up on his dream and what he loves doing. Sub-point b: Besides that, back to Bill Gates. He did not give up on writing programs and software for computer as he is interested in computer science. Evidence 1: Bill Gates attended public elementary school and the private Lakeside school. He discovered his interests in computer programs and software in the lakeside school when he was at the age of 13. The Mothers Club of the Lakeside school bought a teletype and computers for the students that time and this is where Bill Gates wrote his very first computer programs, that is, he wrote a tic-tac-toe program which allowed people to play it on computers. He skipped his mathematics classes to pursue his interests. Evidence 2: Moreover, Bill Gates and his 3 other friends sought time to study the system and hack into the system of the computer by exploiting bugs to get free computer time. However, four of the students including Bill Gates were banned for the whole summer period by Computer Centre Corporation (CCC) after they found out four of them exploited bugs into the system. The system that they hacked was belongs to the CCC Company. But, at the end of the banned period, four of them were offered by CCC to find bugs in their software as an exchange of free computer time inShow MoreRelatedMarketing Plan For A Global Business Essay1585 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesare some of those advantages: managers and entrepreneurs have access to a larger talent pool for possible employment; natural resources are abundant both labor and supply; the possibility for growth is enhanced; and with that comes the possibility for increased profit. In order for entrepreneurs and managers to reap the benefits of a globa l business, they must first structure a business plan based on their strategic vision to incorporate a more globally focused business process. 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This is the story written by Giles Bugaisliskis where he tells us about the beginnings of this historic hotel and how their first owners had an idea and wanted to make it successful. The idea: to have a chain of hotels along the rail road with a new corporate look. (Bugaisliskis)Read MoreEntrpreneurs Who are Born or Made1049 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIntroduction Entrepreneurs are born. This statement by Professor James V. Koch from Old Dominion University, Virginia, USA reflects that entrepreneurs have entrepreneurship skills that are part of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s innate traits one must be born with (Kuratko 2014). Entrepreneur who is born is the entrepreneur that has a family business. The entrepreneur inherits their parentÃ¢â¬â¢s business. Inheritance can make a person to be an entrepreneur. Matter of fact, heredity affects personality and behavior (DaleyRead MoreEssay On A Filipino Doing Business In New Zealand1032 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageshere came from a different place. (Jones, 2008; US Fed News Service, 2008). Migrating to a different country is already a challenge, starting a business and managing people in diverse cultures would be much more. It is everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s dream to be an entrepreneur. Success stories like Bill Gallagher in the 1930s where he got an idea from watching his horse scratching itself from the family car and thus becoming the foundation of Gallagher Power Fencing Company are always in our minds. The vision is to haveRead MoreGlobal Financial Collapse Of 2008908 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesand that there is not secure job as that is a paradigm of the past. It appeared that the only viable option would be to start a business of their own. In an effort to minimize expenses most of the businesses that these people, who are known as entrepreneurs, are starti ng businesses in their own homes. The businesses are referred to as home-based businesses and it is believed that they have generated a large portion of the economy in the United States alone. Some of the most profitable businesses toRead MoreResearch on the Indian Software Export Sector1362 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfields. One of its famous products is Finacle, a complete banking solution for retail and corporate banking with different models. (Carmel Erran, 2006) As the market is expanding globally and becoming more and more competitive each day, my hypothesis is that every company needs a good marketing strategy to be successful. Increasing global trade and sales activity all across the world has heightened the significance of exporting for organizations and countries. Exporting is crucial and has numerousRead MoreTheories of Entrepreneurship1647 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescarry out the process of entrepreneurship are known as entrepreneurs. The term entrepreneur originates from the French word entreprendre which means to undertake. The concept of the entrepreneur has existed and evolved overtime; from the Middle Ages was when the term was first coined, and an entrepreneur was considered a manager of sorts handling projects on behalf of the church or landowners, to the 19th century where JB say defined an entrepreneur as Ã¢â¬Ësomeone who consciously moves economic resourcesRead MoreEffect of Neoliberalism or the Shift to a Neoliberal Philosophy on Cities752 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesindividual (Harvey, 2005). Cities will have the ability to sell themselves in global and national market place of cities. This concept is from that of an entrepreneur selling a product. However, in this case, the location refers to entrepreneurs and the product is the region or city. The successful product sale is determined by the entrepreneursÃ¢â¬â¢ decision of location. Neoliberalisation also results in the reduction of public expenditure on social amenities. The money allocated to health care, educationRead MoreEntrepreneurship Is An Integral Part Of Our Economy1758 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pageswho find passion and purpose in the management, and conceptual thinking of entrepreneurship are known as entrepreneurs. This type of management involving entrepreneurs has become an integral part of our economy in the United States, and globally since the beginning of the modern era, impacting billions of people in its wake through many different social and political facets. As entrepreneurs set out on these ventures in growing small businesses that have changed so much about the world, there are
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
The Role of Sexuality in Traditional Dominican Culture Sexuality in traditional Dominican culture dominates DiazÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, Ã¢â¬Å"The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao.Ã¢â¬ The descriptions and experiences of the main characters in the novel, namely, Oscar, Lola, Beli and Yunior highlight the theme of sexuality in Dominican culture. Yunior is the hyper-masculine narrator who presents sexuality in terms of the power and expectation of Dominican masculinity (Asencio 108). He embodies the Ã¢â¬Ëel machismoÃ¢â¬â¢ masculinity stereotype prevalent in Dominican culture where men have high sex drive and the power to dominate women by controlling their sexuality through violence, coercion, and verbal aggression. Oscar contradicts this machismo power by appearing emasculated like a woman. This shows that women have lower social standing compared to men, even lower than that of weak men like Oscar in Dominican culture. Sexuality plays a central role in DiazÃ¢â¬â¢s novel to illustra te the dominance of masculinity over women in Dominican culture. Oscar and Yunior illustrate opposing forms of masculinity. While OscarÃ¢â¬â¢s awkward, fat, and nerdy character puts him in conflict with the hyper-masculine Dominican society, Yunior embodies the macho identity required by this society through his sexual aggression towards women. Their values also clash because Oscar shows respect and is faithful in his relationships, whereas Yunior is a womanizer who cannot respect beautiful women (Melissa 281). Yunior perceives no valueShow MoreRelatedThe Brief Wondrous Life Of Oscar Wao Analysis1691 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao, a novel composed by Junot Diaz, Oscar Wao tells in what presents to be an oral conversation, consisting in part youth with popular cultural references to fantasy and sci-fi, or American hip-hop, and of Spanish slang extracted from the language of Puerto Rican, Dominican, Cuban, and South American. Diaz uses transnational as a critique contributing to the inspection of the achievements and the limitations of multiculturalism and its academic phenomenon, ethnicRead MoreEssay about Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao1835 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesPaper Eng 102 Professor Peterson Trujillo and the Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao is not a happy book. The Author, Junot Diaz, does a great job fooling the reader into believing the story is about the De Leon family, specifically Oscar who is an over weight nerd trying to find the love of his life, but due to a family Ã¢â¬Å"fukuÃ¢â¬ or curse Oscar is having a lot of trouble doing so. Instead, the story actually portrays the dark history of the Dominican RepublicRead MoreThe Brief Wondrous Life Of Oscar Wao Essay1697 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesbetween peoples of different racial categories. In addition, the strained and chained dislodgment of millions of indigenous Africans by white hegemony immensely added to the current racial hybridity of the Americas. Junot DiazÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao brilliantly illuminates the struggles of the immigrant as he tries to find a sense of belonging in a new environment whilst carrying a heavy, culturally inherited baggage that is part of an individual identity. 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By blending elements of reality with fantasy and science-fiction, the author paints this cursed journey of Oscar, doomed to act the rol e of the contemporary geek. The story follows Oscar in his search to find a girl that will return his love, although he doesnt meet the societys masculinity standards. Latino masculinity is a dominant concept in the novel, for that is the main catalyst for all the actionsRead MoreBrief Wondrous Life Of Oscar Wao1560 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Fukued Dominican In The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao we explore an extensive look at our main character, Oscar. A slightly overweight, highly animated, geek of all geeks, and above all a nice kid who is passionately in love with women. Love and violence fuel each other in Junot DÃ azÃ¢â¬â¢s The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao. Oscar doesn t seem to find love until his life is ultimately life threatened. Oscar and our narrator Yunior, are opposites when it comes to Dominican masculinity and actRead MoreAnalysis Of The Brief Wondrous Life Of Oscar Wao857 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDiaz. Ã¢â¬Å"The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar WaoÃ¢â¬ is the title of Junot Diaz book in which we can perceive the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s allusion to WilliamÃ¢â¬â¢s Shakespeare play in order to comprehend the book better wise. There are many allusions that Junot Diaz had in mind of the play Ã¢â¬Å"The TempestÃ¢â¬ while writing his book and the one that beats them all is the resembles of the rightful Duke of Milan in the play, Prospero and Yunior, the narrator of the story of Oscar Wao. Each of their personalities, story and characterÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreThe Plague Of Doves And The Great Gatsby1743 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescharacters in the works The Plague of Doves, The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao, and The Great Gatsby come from different backgrounds and hold a variety of intersectional identifiers, they encounter similar steps while attempting to life lives separate from their historic lineage. The characters in the works develop relationships with surrogate parental figures in order to escape their histories and ultimately, find success. In The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao, this relationship is observed with BeliRead MoreOscar Wao Essay626 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesfrom the preceding action and the characterÃ¢â¬â¢s nature is what should truly be examined. Not only is the ending of The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao by Junot Diaz both happy and unhappy, it is logical in the sense that it foll ows logically from the climax of the novel all while the characterÃ¢â¬â¢s have been constant throughout, except Oscar. Oscar, the protagonist experiences a life-changing transformation that leads to his untimely death. However, the ending is convincing because of this transformationRead MoreJunot Diaz s Truly Does Tell The Brief Story Of The Wondrous Life Of Oscar De Leon1660 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesJunot DiazÃ¢â¬â¢s novel truly does tell the brief story of the wondrous life of Oscar de LÃ ©on, our Dominican-American protagonist, better known as Oscar Wao. Weighing in at 245 pounds, our hopeless romantic loves comic books, writes science-fiction in all of his spare time, and, as described by our homodiegetic narrator Yunior, is a Ã¢â¬Å"loser with a capital LÃ¢â¬ (Diaz 17). While the title might allude that this is a story solely about Oscar, Diaz also delves deep into the lives of those closest to him. This
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(153) " Among the 3 advantage factors recognized by the Eclectic paradigm, the Ownership advantage appears to be most relevant to the context of Secret Recipe\." LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 22 November 2012 Datuk Steven Sim Chief executive officer and managing director Secret Recipe Cakes and Cafe Sdn Bhd Malaysia Dear Sir, FINAL REPORT SUBMISSION Ã¢â¬â EXPANSION PLAN TO VIETNAM MARKET Please find attached the reported requested by the Board. This report reveals an insight into the Vietnamese market and explains why this is a potential one to invest in. We hope that the information provided is useful in the decision-making with regard to further development of Secret Recipe in the future. We will write a custom essay sample on Global Expansion Plan or any similar topic only for you Order Now If you need any farther clarification on the report, please do not hesitate to contact me, the team leader, at an email address: ksay1nho@email. nottingham. edu. my Yours sincerely, Nguyen Huynh Bao Ngoc On behalf of the Global Strategy Team Table of Contents 1. Executive summary3 2. Introduction4 3. Methodology5 4. Findings and Discussion6 4. 1. Motives of internationalization6 4. 2. Justification of entering into Vietnam6 5. Conclusion13 6. Recommendations:14 6. 1. Most appropriate strategy14 6. 2. Entry mode14 6. 3. Appropriate organization structure15 7. References16 1. Executive summary This report critically examines the possibility of Vietnam to be the next stop in Secret RecipeÃ¢â¬â¢s global expansion plan. Initially, the report highlights the current great achievements that Secret Recipe has been attaining from its very first internationalized activity. Employing the proper strategy and being favored by consumers all guarantee an auspicious future for the chain. Taking all of these merits, the company consecutively looks for new marketplaces with new resources. Simultaneously, findings have shown that Vietnam is an appealing market because of its potentials in a fast-growing economy and long-term profitability, as well as rich resources. Then, the country risk analysis and the country market and industry opportunities analysis were introduced to evaluate VietnamÃ¢â¬â¢s benefits and drawbacks. The result is that there are rooms for both of them. Therefore, so as to be successful, recommendations on appropriate entry mode, strategy and organization structure are specified. To be more detailed, the most suitable entry mode is master franchising via a joint venture because it brings about the positively high certainty in operating. As for strategy, it is an international one to ensure consistency in the menu and concept by taking control over the core competencies and leaving other decisions to foreign subsidiaries. Besides, the Worldwide Area Structure is vital in terms of managing the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s global expansion as it enables local responsiveness and decentralized authority, which both matter for future growth. Finally, the main conclusion is that Vietnam is the right solution for the BoardÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to expand overseas. Nonetheless, the management should cautiously take into account the recommendations so that Secret Recipe can win. 2. Introduction Secret Recipe has gained its popularity not only in Malaysia but also across the region. The great succeed stemmed from the ambience brought to customers and the high-quality food served at reasonable prices. The number of foreign outlets is now exceeding 40 and is expecting to increase. According to Welch and Luostarinen (1988), internationalization can be described as a process by which the level of involvement in overseas activities of a firm rises. Indeed, adding the number of overseas outlets up to 100 was part of the ambitious global expansion plan. Recently, the company has spent RM60 million to invest in 2 more new markets which are India and Cambodia (TheSundaily. com, 2011). Evangelista (1994) argues that the readiness to fund international activities proves that firms desires to move further. In the past 3 years, the company has witnessed an annual growth rate of 30% (Articlebase. com, 2011). Taking advantage of both the reputation and the growth pace, it is the right time to put one step further and seize the opportunities available in a new market to grow even larger. The Global Strategy Team, after doing research on several potential markets within the Asian area, strongly recommends Vietnam. In this report, the motives of internationalization of Secret Recipe will be disclosed, as well as the motives of choosing Vietnam as a new international market will also be revealed. And as for a smooth penetrating process, recommendations relating to the strategy to be implemented, to the entry mode to be executed, and to the organization structure to be formed will be offered. 3. Methodology The information and data given were collected from many government and organization websites, namely Datamonitor, Trading Economics, General Statistics Office of Vietnam, etc. Besides, a proportion of them were also taken from reliable online newspapers such as TheSundaily. com. In addition, knowledge from International Business books and journals was also introduced to help provide a better understanding. Nevertheless, due to the unavailability of official information about Secret Recipe performance, the analysis had to rely entirely on online newspapers and the CEOÃ¢â¬â¢s reported interviews. In addition, the focus of the report is mostly on the food sector, not the franchising one. It is due to the well-structured characteristic of the franchising that it promotes a simple way to interpret and analyze. By contrast, food is a subjective topic as it relates to personal opinion, thus there are limits on suggestions. 4. Findings and Discussion 4. 1. Motives of internationalization Secret Recipe is now among the fastest-growing restaurant chains both domestically and regionally. For the last 5 years, the growth rate has been an amazing double-digit figure (TheSundaily, 2011), accompanied by a rapid increase in the number of outlets. Currently, its outlets present in 8 Asian countries including China, Australia and Pakistan. In any market, there is always a positive reaction from the consumers. A proven fact is that Secret Recipe has been awarded with many titles such as Ã¢â¬Å"Best Cheesecake awardÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"MalaysiaÃ¢â¬â¢s best local restaurant chainÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"IndonesianÃ¢â¬â¢s Best Restaurant AwardÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s Excellent Food AwardÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Best Restaurant Award Ã¢â¬â Philippines TalterÃ¢â¬ , etc. This is to say, Secret Recipe, after securing its stance in Malaysia, is continuously gaining customer awareness and fame throughout the region. As a result, Secret RecipeÃ¢â¬â¢s movement could be best explained using Eclectic paradigm (Dunning, 1980, 1981). Among the 3 advantage factors recognized by the Eclectic paradigm, the Ownership advantage appears to be most relevant to the context of Secret Recipe. As stated above, the company now possesses a valuable intangible asset which is good brand awareness. Besides, stated in the theory, one of the reasons behind the internationalization of a multinational firm is market seeking investment. In this particular case, Secret Recipe is to exploit new market (i. e. Vietnam) because of its prospects of market size and market growth (Dunning and Lundan, 2008) 4. 2. Justification of entering into Vietnam Vietnam risk analysis: Political risks Vietnam is famous for its political stability. This diminishes the insecurity and uncertainty of foreign investors deciding to invest in Vietnam. According to Worldwide Governance Indicators (2011), the Vietnamese political environment remains almost steady in the past 15 years. Figure 1 Source: Worldwide Governance Indicators (2011) Note: Percentile ranks indicate the percentage of countries worldwide that rank lower than the indicated country, so that higher values indicate better governance scores. The line graphs include margins of error shown as dashed lines, corresponding to 90% confidence intervals. Competitive risks Corruption level in Vietnam is reported to be one of the highest in the world. According to Transparency International, 2011Ã¢â¬â¢s score was 2. 9, which increased 0. 2 points compared to the year before. Indeed, in comparison to other countries in Southeast Asia such as Malaysia and Thailand, VietnamÃ¢â¬â¢s freedom from corruption index remains low (refer to figure 2). However, the formation of the Vietnam Anti-Corruption Initiative Program 2011 (VACI) supported by World Bank somehow saves the situation. Figure 2. VietnamÃ¢â¬â¢s freedom from Corruption in comparison with Malaysia, Thailand and the World Average Source: Heritage (2012) Operational risks Suppliers play an important role in deciding the quality. In any market, suppliers are abundant but not all of them can provide what Secret Recipe desires for a good menu. Therefore, an insightful search should be carried out before entering the market. Economic risks The inflation rate of Vietnam fluctuates wildly (refer to figure 3). This issue somehow imposes a concern, as the less wealthy class will be more conscious with eat-out whenever the rate is high, which eventually will negatively impact the foodservice sales. Figure 3 Source: TradingEconomis. om | General Statistics Office of Vietnam Vietnam market and industry opportunities: Market: In the World BankÃ¢â¬â¢s 2011 Annual Report, Vietnam is perceived to reach a middle-income level country soon enough. The Vietnamese foodservice industry grew at a CAGR of 6% from 2005 to 2009. It is estimated that the growth rate would be at a CAGR of 4. 5% from 2010 to 2014 (Datamonitor, 2011). I n recent years, the country has also witnessed a steady urbanization, with a rate of 3. 1% in 2010 (ReportLinker, 2012) accompanied by a sharp rise in population, implying an increasing demand for food. The rationale behind this is that as people move to big cities to work, they will have little time to prepare their own meals. Thus, eating out becomes an optimal choice. Also, according to that report by ReportLinker, there has been a surge in the number of households in Vietnamese economy. Two types of households that contribute the most the industry are single member households and working couples as it fits into their fast-paced lifestyle. Furthermore, Vietnamese population is huge (87. 84 million in 2011) and young. Specifically, in 2010, the group 15-29 (i. e. argeting customer of Secret Recipe) appeared to be significantly larger than others. It is predicted that the group will be expanding in the next ten years, indicating a long-term growth for Secret Recipe in Vietnam food industry. Figure 4. Vietnam population by age and sex in 2010 Figure 5. Vietnam population by age and sex in 2020 Resources: Labor: Secret Recipe can be beneficial from a low-cost and huge workforce. Acco rding to General Statistics Office of Vietnam, 57. 2% of VietnamÃ¢â¬â¢s population participated to labor market and 32. 5% of them had undergone or completed a vocational/professional training. It somehow guarantees skilled labor force availability. Raw materials: Basic ingredients are available here in Vietnam. However, only qualified suppliers worth the contracts otherwise they may ruin Secret RecipeÃ¢â¬â¢s image. Nonetheless, some of the flavors can be costly as they are imported goods with high prices. An approach to this problem could be buying in bulk and storing them for further process. Location: A number of shopping malls and superior residential areas are being built as a developing plan (Food services in Vietnam, Market Analysis, 2012). Therefore, Secret Recipe can easily reach to its customers. Apparently, however, rental price should be considered consciously. Competition: PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Forces model, which consists of five elements, is used to give an overall picture of the food industry in Vietnam. Intensity of rivalry: Medium Currently, in terms of cheese cake, which is a core product of Secret Recipe, there are no direct competitors as none of the existing players emphasize their menu on that. Nonetheless, as for other Vietnamese dishes that will be developed later on, Secret Recipe should be aware that they have been being offered by domestic independents for years (Food Service profile, 2012). Their primary advantage is the understanding of the market, customers and their taste, which will take times for Secret Recipe to gain. Threats of new entrants: Medium to High Setting up a food business generally does not require high capital in comparison to other businesses. However, the procedure to ask for permission to do business in Vietnam needs good relationship with the authorities. Undoubtedly, food is a recession-free industry; hence business entities can earn profit eventually setting foot into this industry. Bargaining power of suppliers: Low As mentioned, in order not to ruin Secret RecipeÃ¢â¬â¢s name, only reliable and qualified suppliers selected. Therefore, once the contract is signed between the two parties, it will be a long-term one and thus the switching cost would be relatively high, causing the suppliersÃ¢â¬â¢ bargaining power to be low. Bargaining power of customers: High Vietnamese food consumers are offered with many choices. Currently, there are several cake brands operating in Vietnam such as Paris Baguette, Chewy Junior (Singapore brand), Tour le Jour (Korean brand). Besides, street vendorsÃ¢â¬â¢ food is plentiful with many different taste and prices to choose from. Consequently, together with a favor in low switching cost, customers can easily go to another restaurant if they want to. Threats of substitutes: High Cakes are not that essential in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s daily life. Moreover, food in general in Vietnam is diversified and can be found on any street with a relatively reasonable price, mostly serve local cuisines to their largely native customers especially in big cities like Ho Chi Minh City. Thus, when it comes to hunger, people can choose from a wide range of them. 5. Conclusion To put it in a nutshell, the motives of internationalization of Secret Recipe can be best enlightened applying Eclectic paradigm, particularly the Ownership advantage. At the moment, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy is trying to spread its brand name beyond borders by constantly looking for new international markets and by bravely spending budget on them. Accordingly, one with great potentials would be worth the investment. All the findings and data have proved that Vietnam comes in the first place in the list of promising marketplaces due to its strongly growing economy, low-cost labor, and dynamic food market. Although entering into the country poses obstacles (e. g. intense competition, good authorities relationship) and economic threats (e. g. unstable inflation rate, high corruption rate), choosing the right strategy, the right means of going into it and building a suitable organization structure would foster an effective and efficient managing job. 6. Recommendations: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 1. Most appropriate strategy The most suitable strategy to be executed when entering Vietnam market is international strategy. There are two reasons for this choice. Firstly, the Secret RecipeÃ¢â¬â¢s menu on cheese cakes was originally developed by Malaysian chefs. People come to the restaurant mostly to enjoy the unique fine taste and the ambience there. Therefore, the R;D function should be in the home country so that the uniqueness making the brand name will always be the same. This happens to be parallel with the top managementÃ¢â¬â¢s viewpoint in which the menu stays unchanged in any market. Secondly, the pressure for local responsiveness is low, not zero. Also, the most crucial characteristic of any organization is the willingness to develop products for foreign markets (Rosson and Ford, 1982). In fact, the success of Secret Recipe in foreign markets has its root in the willingness to include the popular dishes of the local food culture. Furthermore, Vietnamese consumers favor their traditional dishes such as Pho, spring rolls, etc. Thus, being able to fruitfully offer them in the menu will certainly be an advantage. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 1. 7. 2. Entry mode Oviatt and McDougall (1994) advise that firms should use Ã¢â¬ alternative governance structuresÃ¢â¬ , such as franchising, licensing. And together with the analyses about Vietnam risks and industry opportunities, the recommended entry mode for Secret Recipe is establishing a master franchise via a joint venture. The reasons are as follows. First of all, Secret Recipe is in the food industry where the best mean of doing business is franchising. Indeed, the company has achieved its regional prospect thanks to properly implementing that form. In other words, the management is experienced. Moreover, the franchising is now widely perceived and accepted by Vietnamese business entities and the government, making the process easier and less costly. Secondly, Secret Recipe is still on the progress of opening a foreign market, thus what matters the most to the management would be the development costs and risks. As a result, setting up a master franchise will somehow save the management from many problems as it is now the master franchiseeÃ¢â¬â¢s job to select and train franchisees, select locations, etc. Also, the costs and risks will be shared with the local partner in a joint venture. Thirdly, there is always a need to reduce control challenges and to protect the brand name, as well as to benefit from a local partnersÃ¢â¬â¢ knowledge of the host countryÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive conditions, culture, language, political and business systems whenever expanding internationally. In this sense, a joint venture appears to be essential and practical. Besides, due to the complexity of Vietnamese market, a Vietnamese partner would be helpful in negotiating with the authorities, finding suppliers, recruiting personnel, etc. 7. 3. Appropriate organization structure In terms of global expansion management, the recommendation structure goes to Worldwide Area Structure. The reason is that for farther development, Secret Recipe will obviously expand to other markets in different countries and territories around the world. Sooner or later, the management will have to deal with problems arising from dissimilarities in customers taste, operational issues, etc. Consequently, to save costs and efforts, it is necessary to have a decentralized bureaucracy, which can be built under a Worldwide Area structure. Plus, the structure facilitates local responsiveness, which is relatively crucial to a restaurant chain like Secret Recipe. On the other hand, the structure bears the threat of fragmentation of the organization. Hence, it needs close monitor and periodical review. [Words count: 2,254] 7. References A recipe for success (2011) [Online]. Available at http://top10malaysia. com/home/index. php/trail-blazing-companies/secret-recipe [Accessed 19th October 2012] B. M. Oviatt, P. P. McDougall (1994). Ã¢â¬ËToward a theory of international new venturesÃ¢â¬â¢. Journal of International Business Studies, 25 (1994), pp. 45Ã¢â¬â64 Corruption in Vietnam is serious, blatant, rampant (September 2012) [Online]. Available at http://tuoitrenews. vn/cmlink/tuoitrenews/politics/corruption-in-vietnam-is-serious-blatant-rampant-1. 85998 [Accessed 12th November 2012] Dunning, H. J. , ; Lundan, M. S. (2008). Multinational Enterprises and The Global Economy. (2nd Edition). UK: Edward Elgar Publishing Foodservice in Vietnam to 2014 (July 2011) [Online]. Available at http://www. marketresearch. com/Datamonitor-v72/Foodservice-Vietnam-6446347/ Accessed 28th October 2012] F. U. Evangelista (1994). Export performance and its determinants: some empirical evidence from Australian manufacturing firms ,in: S. T. Cavusgil, C. T. Axmin (Eds. ), Advances in international marketing, vol. 6JAI Press, Greenwich, CT (1994), pp. 207Ã¢â¬â229 General Statistics office of Viet Nam [Online]. Available at http://www. gso. gov. vn/default_en. aspx? tabid=515;idmid=5;ItemID =106550 [Accessed 5th November 2012] Hill, C. W. L. (2012), International Business: Competing in the Global Marketplace, (9th ed. McGraw Hill, p434-439. L. S. Welch, R. K. Luostarinen (1988). Ã¢â¬ËInternationalization: evolution of a conceptÃ¢â¬â¢. Journal of General Management, 14 (2) (1988), pp. 34Ã¢â¬â55 P. J. Rosson, L. D. Ford (1982). Ã¢â¬ËManufacturerÃ¢â¬âoverseas distributor relations and export performanceÃ¢â¬â¢. Journal of International Business Studies, Fall (1982), pp. 57Ã¢â¬â72 Secret Recipe to invest RM60m on expansion (December 2011) [Online]. Available at http://www. thesundaily. my/news/243733 [Accessed 21st October 2012] Secret Recipe in Malaysia (July 2011) [Online]. Available at http://www. articlesbase. om/customer-service-articles/secret-recipe-in-malaysia-5066674. html [Accessed 22nd October 2012] Secret Recipe plans more foreign outlets (January 2008) [Online]. Available at http://biz. thestar. com. my/news/story. asp? file=%2F2008%2F1%2F24%2F business%2F20105989;sec=business [Accessed 22nd October 2012] Vietnam Anti-Corruption Initiative Program 2011 Awarded 34 Proposals to Minimize Corruption http://web. worldbank. org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/EASTASIAPACIFICEXT/VIETNAMEXTN/0,,contentMDK:22793085~pagePK:1497618~piPK:217854~theSitePK:387565,00. tml [Accessed 12th November 2012] Vietnamese foodservice: The future of food service in Viet Nam (October 2012) [Online]. Available at http://www. reportlinker. com/p01010818-summary/Vietnamese-Foodservice-The-Future-of-Foodservice-in-Vietnam-to. html [Accessed 5th November 2012] Vietnam Inflation rate http://www. tradingeconomics. com/vietnam/inflation-cpi [Accessed 11st November 2012] Vietnamese population pyramid for years [Online]. Available at http://www. nationmaster. com/country/vm-vietnam/Age_distribution [Accessed How to cite Global Expansion Plan, Essay examples
Friday, May 1, 2020
Question: Discuss About The Journal Of Corporate Accounting And Finance? Answer: Introducation In the given case study, the most relevant and critical issue is the determination of fair value and how it fluctuates according to its use by the different entities. The value of PPE may differ entirely if based on the fair values as it has separate uses for a non-profit organisation and one which deals in profits. (Alexander, 2016) Thus, it has to be seen that what is the best and the highest use of the asset relevant to the circumstance to determine the correct fair value. Highest Best Use Highest and best use may be defined as how the non-financial asset can be put to the best possible use to extract the maximum economic benefit out of it. Or, if can be sold to the other party who has the ability to extract the best out of it or sell it at the best possible price. While using this concept, 3 things need to be considered. i.e., physical presence of asset, economic feasibility and legal status of the transaction. (Das, 2017) Application to aged care home When the above principle is applied to the aged home care, the value of the assets may come out to be substantially less when the same is compared against the commercial or business entities. But, in true sense, the value of the asset or property should bot change according to who is using it but should be uniform based on the exit price in the market as on the final measurement date. Two possible uses Fair valuation is the essence of modern day accounting and is used in wide areas like the determination of impairment amount of the tangible and intangible assets, inventory valuation in the books and several other reporting requirements as per IFRS framework. Accounting Justification: AASB 136 deals with the impairment of the tangible and intangible assets. Agenda 10F(a) of the conceptual framework of general purpose accounting also deals extensively on the issues related to impairment. (Dichev, 2017) Impairment is the permanent write down in the value of assets when the indicators so exists and hint the write down in value. These indicators may be internal or external in nature and based on these factors, the impairment testing is done towards the end of the period. The asset should not be carried in the books of accounts at more than the recoverable value which is higher of the value in use or the fair value of the asset less the cost of disposal. All this is calculated in accordance with the standards prescribed. Relevant Issues: The relevant issue here is the determination of the impairment loss for the 2 CGU of the company which has been named as Time and Leisure. The company has also changed the value of depreciation in the 2nd accounting year based on the assessment, the impact of the same also needs to be analysed on the impairment loss for the year. (Visinescu, Jones, Sidorova, 2017) Mpairment Test 31/12/16 As per the below calculations made, it is evident that there is an impairment loss in the 2 CGUs as $ 200 for Time and $ 12 for Leisure. While calculating so, it was taken care that impairment loss is first assigned to the goodwill and then to the other remaining assets. The value of the plant is limited to the recoverable value and so the reallocation had to be done to other assets. Loss will not be allocated to Inventory and receivables as both of them are current assets held for sale. (Murray Markey?Towler, 2017) General Journal Entries 31/12/16: Date Account DR CR 31/12/2016 Impairment loss on CGU - Time 200 To Accumulated depn impairment loss - Plant 155 To Accumulated depn impairment loss Patent 20 To Accumulated depn impairment loss - Goodwill 25 31/12/2016 Impairment loss on CGU - Leisure 12 To Accumulated depn impairment loss - Goodwill 12 Impairment Test 31/12/17 While calculating the impairment loss for 2017, the new carrying values given by the company for the assets were considered basis which reversal of impairment loss is coming. However, goodwill once impaired, cannot be reversed back in any circumstance. The impairment calculation further on is given below: General Journal Entries 31/12/17: Date Account DR CR 31/12/2017 Accumulated depn impairment loss - Plant 155 Accumulated depn impairment loss Patent 20 To Impairment Loss on CGU - Time 175 Accounting Justification: The question of research and development expenditure arises when the company is dealing with the internally generated intangible assets. The topic is being extensively dealt in by AASB 138, paragraph 8 and SSAP 13 of the conceptual framework of accounting. Research cost is the pre facto cost which is being incurred in the initial phase before the development of the asset takes place. It is done to check on the technical and scientific feasibility of the project in hand. It is checked that whether the project would be economically viable and financially feasible to carry on with. (Trieu, 2017) Further, development of the asset is the phase which comes after the research phase and the company is sure that the asset once generated would bring future economic benefits to the entity. It is during this phase that the company comes up with the advanced technology or invests in developing a new and enhanced product or to bring a new version of process of the existing one. In case there is an issue of non-classification of the research and development expenses in the absence of information, full value should be considered as the research cost. (Heminway, 2017) Relevant Issues: The relevant issue of discussion here is the bifurcation of the research and the development cost and how the same should be treated in the financial books of accounts Difference between two phases: The difference between the 2 phase is that the research comes before the development phase starts. Research may or may no result into an asset whereas development phase will surely result in to an asset. Research is not associated with future economic benefits whereas development is. These are the basic differences in between the two.(Raiborn, Butler, Martin, 2016) Accounting for Research Development: The research phase is not expected to give the future economic benefits to the entity neither the entity can demonstrate so. It is not done with the intention of creating the asset rather it is done just to get the understanding of the thing. Hence, it should be charged off to expense in the PL. Whereas the development is the post facto phase of the research where the development of the enhanced product or technology or process is being carried out such that the company can derive the future economic benefits out of it and therefore the same should be capitalized in the books. (Flix, 2017) Further, if any incidental costs are incurred during the developmental phase, the same should be capitalised in the books. Decision / Conclusion / Reasons and Justification: On the basis of the above discussion and study, it can be concluded that the research costs needs to be charged off as an expense to the PL whereas the development costs should be capitalised in the books. However, before the decision is taken on the accounting, It should be seen that whether the motive was there to create the asset, whether the asset is saleable in the open market, whether it is economically feasible in the future and before capitalization, whether it can be reliably measured. Accounting Justification: AASB 1056 deals on the employee benefits being offered by the company to their employees in lieu of the services rendered. It includes defined benefit plan, contribution plan and superannuation plan. It is in the nature of the pension which is being paid to the employee after retirement but the funds are to be accumulated upfront. Defined benefit plan includes contribution only by the employer to the common fund whereas defined contribution plan includes contribution to be made both by the employer as well as employee. (Jones, 2017) In the given case study, the company has stopped giving this benefit to the new employees however, it continues to do so and contribute towards the old employees who opted for it in the past. The return earned on these funds depends on a lot of internal as well as external factors and particularly the interest rate which is prevailing in the market for the investment made by the company. (Werner, 2017) Relevant Issues: The issue of discussion here is the computation of the benefit or deficit in the funds, asset or liability as on the balance sheet date. Accordingly, the computation has been shown below: Deficit of Fund The deficit amount in the fund computed is $ 1,100,000 (2,100,000 1,000,000) Net Defined Benefit Liability The net defined benefit liability for the company at the end of the period is $ 23,000,000 Net Interest In the table given above (Present value of defined benefit obligation account), net interest is computed as on 31st December 2016 to be $ 2,200,000. Reconciliation The reconciliation accounts of the company have been shown below. Summary Journal Date Account DR CR 31/12/2016 Current service cost A/C Dr. 800,000 Interest cost A/C .Dr. 2,200,000 To Present value of defined benefit obligation 3,000,000 31/12/2016 Actuarial Loss A/C..Dr. 100,000 To Present value of defined benefit obligation 100,000 31/12/2016 Statement of PL.Dr. 3,100,000 To Current service cost 800,000 To Interest cost 2,200,000 To Actuarial Loss 100,000 References Abbott, M., Kantor, A. (2017). Fair Value Measurement and Mandated Accounting Changes: The Case of the Victorian Rail Track Corporation. Australian accounting Review. Alexander, F. (2016). The Changing Face of Accountability. The Journal of Higher Education, 71(4), 411-431. Das, P. (2017). Financing Pattern and Utilization of Fixed Assets - A Study. Asian Journal of Social Science Studies, 2(2), 10-17. Dichev, I. (2017). On the conceptual foundations of financial reporting. Accounting and Business Research, 47(6), 617-632. Flix, M. (2017). A study on the expected impact of IFRS 17 on the transparency of financial statements of insurance companies. MASTER THESIS, 1-69. Heminway, J. (2017). Shareholder Wealth Maximization as a Function of Statutes, Decisional Law, and Organic Documents. SSRN, 1-35. Jones, P. (2017). Statistical Sampling and Risk Analysis in Auditing. NY: Routledge. Murray, C., Markey?Towler, B. (2017). A Theory of Return-Seeking Firms. SSRN, 1-14. Raiborn, C., Butler, J., Martin, K. (2016). The internal audit function: A prerequisite for Good Governance. Journal of Corporate Accounting and Finance, 28(2), 10-21. Trieu, V. (2017). Getting value from Business Intelligence systems: A review and research agenda. Decision Support Systems, 93, 111-124. Visinescu, L., Jones, M., Sidorova, A. (2017). Improving Decision Quality: The Role of Business Intelligence. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 57(1), 58-66. Werner, M. (2017). Financial process mining - Accounting data structure dependent control flow inference. International Journal of Accounting Information Systems, 25, 57-80.
Saturday, March 21, 2020
Table of Contents Cannabis Dependence Psychiatric Disorders Cannabis Induced Psychiatric Disorders Conclusion References The purpose of this study will be to examine psychiatric disorders that have been induced by overdependence on Cannabis. Cannabis Sativa is a herb originating from the Cannabaceae family that is recognised worldwide as a euphoric and hallucinogenic drug.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Cannabis Dependence and Psychiatric Disorders: Outline specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The strong smelling herb is used for medicinal purposes, for making hemp fibres and for developing recreational drugs (hashish and marijuana). The different parts of Cannabis have been used for different purposes and functions with one of the most common uses being for recreational purposes. Marijuana is basically derived from the dried flowers and leaves of the cannabis sativa plant which is usually ingested or s moked while hashish is a resinous extract obtained from the plant which is usually vaporized or smoked (Elsohy, 2007). Cannabis is one of the most famous recreational drugs in the world after caffeine, alcohol and tobacco where over 100 million people especially in the United States are consumers of the drug on an annual basis. The reason for this is attributed to the fact that Marijuana which is derived from the Cannabis herb allows the user to be in a state of relaxation thereby reducing any cases of anxiety, paranoia or stress. The tetrahydrocannabinol compound found in the leaves of the herb usually acts as the main stimulant once it is consumed by the user enabling them to experience a sense of peace and relaxation (Bolla et al, 2002). The drug however presents tertiary and secondary psychoactive effects that might pose a threat to the individual taking the drugs some of which include an increased heart rate, hallucinations, loss of memory, increased anxiety levels, high energy levels and an increasing sense of hunger. If larger doses of the drug are taken through smoking, vaporization or oral ingestion, the effects might last longer for 24 hours where the consumer experiences both the secondary and tertiary psychoactive effects of the drug (Fusar-Poli et al, 2009). Marijuana is a very addictive drug which means that once it is consumed, it is very difficult to stop smoking or ingesting the drug because of the various effects that are presented by Cannabis.Advertising Looking for research paper on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Cannabis Dependence Cannabis dependence is defined as a condition where an individual who continues to take Cannabis or Marijuana demonstrates cognitive, behavioural and physiological symptoms. Based on the DSM-IV criteria for diagnosing substance dependence on various drugs such as the one understudy (Michael et al, 2004), cannabis dependence is determined by th e existence of three or the following criteria which might occur within a period of 12 months. Tolerance which is the first DSM-IV criteria explains Cannabis dependence to be the need that an individual has to consume large amounts of Cannabis Sativa so that they can achieve an increased level of intoxication that will lead to diminished thoughts, emotions or feelings on the part of the user (Michael et al, 2004). The second criteria based on the DSM-IV criterion for substance abuse is withdrawal which explains Cannabis dependence to be a manifestation of withdrawal symptoms such as increased restlessness, insomnia or poor sleeping habits, increased appetite as the drug brings about hunger, irritability, paranoia and anger. Other DSM-IV criteria that are used to explain dependence of marijuana is when an individual takes the substance in large amounts for a long period of time than was intended to relieve anxiety or stress, the individual experiences a persistent desire to reduce su bstance abuse but unsuccessfully fails to do so and/or they spend most of their time and resources trying to acquire the substance or drug which means that their social life and other recreational activities are abandoned because of the continued use of the drug (Wenger et al, 2003). Based on the various studies that have been conducted on the dependence of cannabis, the drug has presented a less addictive potential when compared to hard drugs such as heroin, cocaine, tobacco or alcohol (Coffey et al, 2003). According to Michael et al (2004), Cannabis dependence has been cited as one of the clinical entities of substance abuse and dependence in the DSM-IV of mental disorders criteria. The coding criterion that is used by the DSM-IV is usually based on the international classification of diseases where the signs and symptoms of diseases are identified and described in the various versions of DSM-IV textbooks. Based on the DSM-IV criteria, cannabis dependence falls under the category of substance related disorders as the individuals who consume the drug experience the various side effects that lead to cannabis dependence (Michael et al, 2004).Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Cannabis Dependence and Psychiatric Disorders: Outline specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To further explain cannabis dependence, the extended use of marijuana or hashish is likely to produce various changes in the bodily processes of an individual which affect how cannabis is absorbed or metabolized by the individual. These changes which are referred to as pharmacokinetic changes usually force the user to increase their dosage of the drug so that they can be able to achieve a desirable effect which is known as a higher tolerance to marijuana or Cannabis Sativa (Joy et al, 1999). Higher doses of cannabis further reinforce the metabolism rate of the individual thereby increasing the rate at which the drug is broken down and expelled from the body. This means that Cannabis sativa, marijuana and hashish act as a system of reinforcement to the metabolic functions of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s digestive system as well as their small and large intestines (Wenger et al, 2003). According to Hall et al (2001), the risk factors of Cannabis dependence are usually determined by the number of doses an individual user takes in a day as well as the frequency of these doses. Based on their research, the authors determined that one in every ten people who consumed cannabis were more than likely to become dependent on the drug at some point in their life. People who consumed the drug frequently (five times in a day) were more than likely to increase their risk of developing dependence on the drug. The risk factors that are considered to be the major contributors to cannabis dependence based on longitudinal studies conducted by Copeland et al (2004) include the frequent use of the drug especially at a young age wh ere drug users who begin taking the drug during their teenage or adolescent years are at a greater risk of being cannabis dependent. Coffey et al (2000) conducted a study in Victoria, Australia where they examined 2032 high school students to determine the impact that young age had on cannabis dependence. The results of their study revealed that mid-school consumption of cannabis sativa was mostly associated with other factors such as frequent cigarette smoking, peer pressure from other students who are ingesting or smoking cannabis sativa and anti-social behaviour such as stealing, sexual promiscuity and violent tendencies. Coffey et alÃ¢â¬â¢s (2000) study also revealed that the regular use of marijuana or Cannabis Sativa among young people at an early age continued to persist even as the adolescents approached young adulthood.Advertising Looking for research paper on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A follow up study conducted by Coffey et al (2003) of the high school students who had attained the ages of 20 to 21 years revealed that one in five the adolescent users of the drug demonstrated dependence to cannabis well into the early stages of adulthood. Other risk factors that have been related to an increased risk of cannabis dependence include psychological distress where individuals use the drug to relieve feelings of distress, anger or sadness, poor parenting where children raised by parents who are cannabis consumers are more than likely to develop cannabis dependence in their teenage and adult years and influence from peers where children with friends who smoke or ingest cannabis are more than likely to consume the drug and also become cannabis dependent at an older age. Ehrenreich et al (1999) from their study of cannabis dependence from a young age have concluded that there exists strong evidence that children who are exposed to cannabis or marijuana at a young age are more than likely to become cannabis dependent when they are older. Psychiatric Disorders A psychiatric disorder which is otherwise referred to as a mental illness/disorder is a psychological or behavioural pattern that is usually associated to emotional distress or mental disabilities which an individual goes through. Psychiatric disorders are not part of the normal development of an individual and they are therefore termed as abnormal manifestations of the mental health of the individual. Psychiatric disorders encompass very many mental health conditions which affect the behavioural, intellectual and cognitive abilities of an individual and some of these mental health conditions include anxiety disorders, personality disorders, sexual disorders, eating disorders, dissociative disorders and drug dependence disorders (Akiskal Benazzi, 2006). Psychiatric disorders or mental illnesses usually affect the mental well being of an individual as well as their cognitive capacity further det eriorating their intellectual capabilities and functions (Insel Wang, 2010). Mental disorders are caused by a variety of factors where most researchers have conceded that the disorders arise from genetic vulnerabilities or predispositions. Other studies have revealed that psychiatric disorders result from psychological, emotional, sexual and physical traumas during the formative years of a child. These traumatic experiences usually come to manifest themselves as the child continues to develop intellectually as well as emotionally and if they are not managed properly they might lead to psychiatric disorders. Based on a significant number of studies, children who have been sexually abused contribute significantly to the percentage of causation factors that lead to mental or psychiatric disorders during their adulthood years (Kashner et al, 2003). Based on worldwide statistics, the number of people who suffer from psychiatric disorders have been estimated to be one in every three peop le in over 100 countries around the world (WHO, 2000). In the United States for example, the number of people who suffer from psychiatric disorders accounts for 46 percent of the total American population where one in every three Americans suffers from a mental illness at one point in their lives (Kessler et al, 2005). The most common psychiatric disorders based on the World Mental Health Survey initiative include anxiety disorders, mood disorders, substance disorders and impulse control disorders which are common in all but a few countries in the world (Demyttenaere et al, 2004). Psychiatric disorders that are not suitably dealt with result in obsessive or compulsive behaviour, manic depression, paranoia, delusions or hallucinations or violent behaviour. Cannabis Induced Psychiatric Disorders There exists limited research on the clinical implications of cannabis induced psychiatric disorders despite the existence of medical evidence that cannabis or marijuana is linked to the genes is of paranoid schizophrenia in an individual (Arseneault et al, 2004). Based on various research studies (Hall Degenhardt, 2004: Johns, 2001: Large et al 2011), the psychotic symptoms of continued or frequent marijuana consumption were usually short-lived and the cases of total remission were expected in patients who developed psychiatric disorders. These results were however based on case studies that lacked any follow-up information that could be used to further explain whether cannabis dependence elicited any psychiatric disorders in individuals (Arendt et al, 2005). A follow-up study conducted by Arendt et al (2005) revealed that the prognosis for cannabis-induced psychiatric disorders cannot be properly ascertained because such a condition is termed to be a rare occurrence by the American Psychiatric Association as well as the diagnostic and statistical manual (DSM-IV) of mental disorders. The study conducted by Arendt et al (2005) was the first to provide an accurate estimat e of the rates of incidence that can be attributed to cannabis induced psychiatric disorders. The results of the follow-up study were able to reveal that half of the 535 people who were under examination were treated for cannabis induced psychotic disorders with paranoid schizophrenia being the most dominant form of mental illness. The follow-up study also revealed that there were 77 percent of new psychotic episodes reported in majority of the population involved in the follow-up where male participants and people of a young age were associated with a more severe outcome of cannabis induced psychiatric disorders (Arendt et al, 2005). Most of the patients who were consumers or users of cannabis sativa recorded an increase the level of schizophrenic-spectrum disorders which occurred within a span of more than a year. Also for the majority of the patients placed under the follow-up study, cannabis-induced psychotic symptoms were seen to be the first step in the development of schizoph renic-spectrum disorders or other severe forms of paranoid schizophrenia. Arendt et alÃ¢â¬â¢s (2005) study is however inconsistent with the findings from previous studies such as those conducted by Talbott and Teague in 1969, Thacore and Shukla in 1976 and Carney et al in 1984 where their results revealed that people who were users of cannabis sativa demonstrated complete remission of the effects of the drug when the individuals abstained from using the drug completely. However, the patients examined by the researchers were not followed up after the cannabis induced psychotic condition remitted which means that their studies did not provide any long-term data that would be used to explain cannabis induced psychiatric disorders. Many of the investigations reported that cannabis induced psychotic conditions usually subsided at a faster rate than the psychiatric disorders which were not induced by any substances all. Arendt et alÃ¢â¬â¢s study was able to dispute previous findings w here they discovered that the development of paranoid schizophrenia was often delayed in the case of cannabis induced psychosis. They based this finding on a sample population of 47 percent of the people understudy who received a diagnosis a year after seeking treatment for cannabis induced psychotic conditions. The researchers were able to conclude that cannabis induced psychotic disorders were of great prognostic concern and importance and doctors/psychiatrists needed to treat the disorders once they were diagnosed in patients (Arendt et al, 2008). Conclusion The discussion focused on cannabis dependence which is how an individual constantly consumes marijuana to achieve a feeling of relaxation or euphoria. The discussion also highlighted psychiatric disorders and identified the psychotic illnesses that arise as a result of continued cannabis consumption. Most of the research referred to in the study pinpointed the fact that cannabis induced psychotic disorders did not last for lo ng and they were therefore of no concern to health practitioners and psychiatrists. Only one study was able to concur that psychiatric disorders which arose as a result of cannabis dependence were of a major concern to doctors. References Akiskal, H.S., Benazzi, F. (2006). The DSM-IV and ICD-10 categories of recurrent (Major) depressive and bipolar II disorders: evidence that they lie on a dimensional spectrum. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol: 92 5-54 Arendt, M., Rosenberg, R., Foldager, L., Perto, G. (2005). Cannabis-induced psychosis and subsequent schizophrenia-spectrum disorders: follow-up study of 535 incident cases. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 187:510-515 Arendt, M., Mortensen, P.B., Rosenberg, R., Pedersen, C.B., Waltoft, B.L. (2008). Familial predisposition for psychiatric disorder: comparison of subjects treated for Cannabis-Induced psychosis and schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65(11): 1269 Ã¢â¬â 1274 Arseneault, L., Cannon, M., Witton, J., e t al. (2004) Causal association between Cannabis and psychosis: examination of the evidence. British Journal of Psychiatry, 184:110 -117 Bolla, K.I., Brown, K., Eldreth, D., Tate, K., Cadet, J.L. (2002). Dose-related Neurocognitive effects of marijuana use. Neurology. 59(9):1337-1343 Coffey, C., Lynskey, M., Wolfe, R., Patton, G.C. (2000). Initiation and progression of Cannabis use in a population-based Australian adolescent longitudinal study. Addiction. 95(11):1679-1690 Coffey, C., Carlin, J.B., Lynskey M., Li, N., Patton, G.C. (2003). Adolescent precursor of cannabis use in a population-based Australian adolescent longitudinal study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 182(4):330-336 Copeland, J., Gerber, S., Swift, W. (2004). Evidence-based answers to cannabis questions: a review of the literature. A report prepared for the Australian National Council on Drugs. New South Wales, Australia: National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, Australia Demyttenaere, K., Bruffaerts, R., Posa da-Villa, J. (2004). Prevalence, severity and unmet need for treatment of mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. Journal of American Medical Association, 291(21):2581-2590 Ehrenreich, H., Rinn, T., Kunert H. J., Moeller, M.R., Poser, W., Schilling, L., Hoehe, M.R. (1999). Specific attentional dysfunction in adults following early start of cannabis use. Psychopharmacology, 142(3):295-301 Elsohy, M. (2007). Marijuana and the cannabinoids. New York: Humana Press Fusar-Poli, P., Crippa, J.A., Bhattacharyya, S. (2009). Distinct effects of Tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on neural activation during emotional processing. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66(1):95-105 Hall, W., Degenhardt, L., Lynskey, M. (2001). The health and psychological effects of Cannabis use. Canberra, Australia: Department of Health and Ageing Hall, W. Degenhardt, L. (2004). Is there a specific cannabis psychosis? Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Insel, T.R., Wang, P.S. (2010). Rethinking mental illness. Journal of American Medical Association, 303(19):1970-1971 Johns, A. (2001). Psychiatric effects of cannabis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 178:116-122 Joy, J.E., Watson, S.J., and Benson, J.A. (1999). Marijuana and medicine: assessing the science base. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Science Press Kashner, T.M., Rush, A.J. Suris, A. (2003). Impact of structured clinical interviews on physician practices in community mental health settings. Psychiatric Services, 54(5):712-718 Kessler, R.C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Merikangas, K.R., Walters, E.E. (2005). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(6):593-602 Large, M., Sharma, S., Compton, M.T., Slade, T., Nielssen, O. (2011). Cannabis use and earlier onset of psychosis: a systematic meta-analysis. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51-57 Michael, B. F., Frances , A., Pincus, H.A. (2004). DSM-IV-TR guidebook. Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing Wenger, T., Moldrich, G., Furst, S. (2003). Neoromorphological background of Cannabis addiction. Brain Research Bulletin, Vol: 61125-128 WHO (2000). Cross-national comparisons of the prevalences and correlates of mental disorders. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Vol: 78(4). This research paper on Cannabis Dependence and Psychiatric Disorders: Outline was written and submitted by user Maria Foley to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Thursday, March 5, 2020
Using MySQL Connection Code in Multiple PHP Files Many website owners use PHP to enhance the capabilities of their webpages. When they combine PHP with the open-source relational database MySQL, the list of capabilities grows immensely. They can establish login credentials, conduct user surveys, set and access cookies and sessions,Ã rotate banner ads on their site, host user forums, and open online stores, among many other features that are not possible without a database. MySQL and PHP are compatible products and are frequentlyÃ used together by website owners. The MySQL code can be included directly in the PHP script. Both are located on your web server, and most web servers support them. The server-side location provides reliableÃ security for the data your website uses. Connecting Multiple Webpages to One MySQL Database If you have a small website, you probably dont mind typing your MySQL database connection code into the PHP script for a few pages. However, if your website is large and many of theÃ pages require access to your MySQL database, you can save time with a shortcut. Put the MySQL connection code in a separate file and then call the saved file where you need it. For example, use the SQL code below in a PHP script to log in to your MySQL database. Save this code in a file called datalogin.php. ?php // Connects to my Database mysql_connect(your.hostaddress.com, username, password) or die(mysql_error()); mysql_select_db(Database_Name) or die(mysql_error()); ? Now, whenever youÃ need to connect one of your webpages to the database, you include this line in PHP in the file for that page: //MySQL Database Connect include datalogin.php; When your pages connect to the database, they can read from it or write information to it. Now that you can call MySQL, use it to set up an address book or a hit counter for your website.
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
A case study on Inuit environment and resources, and their relationship to Inuit culture and belief system - Research Paper Example They have their own distinct literature, music and arts, most of which are created to praise and worship the spirits that guide them in their everyday lives. The term Inuit refers to the group of aboriginal people that live and occupy the Arctic region from Greenland to the east of Siberia (Park). They arrived in the Arctic from Asia through land bridges, as a matter of fact, it is settled that they are Ã¢â¬Å"the last people to cross from AsiaÃ¢â¬ (King, 9). Needless to state, the Arctic is perhaps the most unlivable place on earth Ã¢â¬â forever cold and frozen Ã¢â¬â yet the Inuit have made it home. They lived off of the abundance of the sea and whatever is found on land. They made tools from animal bones and rocks which are then used to make clothing from animal skin and fur. For their fuel which they use for cooking and lighting, they have learned to extract the oils from sea mammals like whales. (King, 9) The land and the sea provide for all their needs, and they return the favor by making offerings to the spirits of nature. With the help and guidance of the spirits, the Inuit was able to develop things that made living in the harsh environment easier. They live in an igloo, travel on water with the kayak and on land with dogsleds, use ulu which is a knife used by women for household chores, and discover the utility of the quilliq which is a small stove made of stone. During the never-ending winter season, the quilliq not only cooks their food but also provide heat and light to the entire household. (The Inuit Way, 8) The Inuit boasts of a very rich and colorful culture which is in stark contrast to the monotony of their natural environment. Despite contact with foreigners, the Inuit have been successful in preserving their cultural heritage and identity, with the preservation of Inuktitut, the Inuit language. To ensure that the younger generations never forget their identity, small children are taught to play the traditional games and